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    What is Cryptography?

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    The practice of using coding to safeguard computer systems, online frameworks, and digital data is known as cryptography. It is a concept whose goal is to maintain vital information safe and confidential in the face of potential data breaches. The creation of ciphers is a vital component of cryptography. Ciphers are written codes that conceal sensitive information from entities that are not authorized to access it. The stronger the cipher, the better the security.

    Cryptographers use a variety of technologically advanced techniques to safeguard data used by the public and private sectors, ranging from credit card details to medical records. While these techniques take different approaches, they all have the same goal in mind: to keep data secure. In addition, check these 5 options to choose a reliable crypto. Encryption is the primary technique underlying the concept of cryptography. Encryption uses algorithm strategies to reorganize critical data. Only those with a “key,” a piece of code, can unlock the information and see the data in its original form.

    Benefits of cryptography

    Cryptography is an essential tool for any organisation that interacts with confidential data. Cryptographic techniques can ensure the secure transmission of confidential information. Digital signature techniques can help stop scammers from decrypting corporate data, while hash function techniques can help businesses maintain data integrity. Collectively, these advantages enable businesses to conduct business with complete confidence in the digital era.

    Encryption and Decryption

    Cryptography is frequently associated with the process of converting plaintext to ciphertext, which is a text that has been encoded so that the intended receiver can only decode it, and thus this process is known as encryption. Decryption refers to the process of converting ciphertext to plain text. 

    Types of Cryptographic algorithms

    There are numerous types of cryptographic algorithms. They differ in terms of complexity and security depending on the form of information exchange and the sensitivity of the information shared.

    1. Block Ciphers:

    Block ciphers encrypt one fixed-size block of data at a time. When the same key is used, it will continuously encode a plaintext data block to the same ciphertext. The Feistel cipher is a good example of this, as it uses key expansion, permutation, and substitution to generate massive confusion and diffusion in the cipher.

    1. Secret Key:

    Secret key cryptography encrypts and decrypts a message using a single key. The sender encrypts the plaintext message with the key and sends it to the recipient, who decrypts it and unlocks the original plaintext message with the same key.

    1. Stream Ciphers:

    Stream ciphers operate on a single bit or byte at a time and use feedback mechanisms to constantly change the key. By recognizing where it is in the bit keystream, a self-synchronising stream cipher ensures that the decryption process remains in alignment with the encryption process. A synchronous stream cipher produces the keystream autonomously of the message stream and uses the same keystream function at the sender and receiver.

    What are the issues in Cryptography?

    Cryptography issues can be summarised in the following headings:

    • Password Management:

    Password-based authentication is popular in applications because it is simple to understand, use, and develop. Password management, on the other hand, is simple to get wrong. Passwords must be stored as hashes generated by a secure hash algorithm for secure password management. To prevent cyberattacks, a random salt is appended to the password before hashing. If any of these conditions are not met, the password is considered insecure.

    In the cryptocurrency space, poor random number generation is common. In one case, a “Blockchain Bandit” looked for Ethereum users who generated secret keys for their blockchain accounts using an insecure protocol. Using this vulnerability, the attacker was able to steal millions of dollars in cryptocurrency.

    • Use of insecure cryptography:

    A personalised cryptographic protocol is also more likely to contain potential vulnerabilities, so all factors of implementation must be carefully considered. As evidenced by the Zerologon flaw in 2020 This vulnerability existed because of the use of a tailored block cipher mode of operation for AES encryption. As a result, susceptible domain controllers (DC) could be used to grant an attacker complete access to the network managed by the DC. The lesson of Zerologon is straightforward. Never attempt to create your cryptography.

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